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Healing from TYPE 2 DIABETES

by admin on Luglio 24th, 2014

Patients with Type 2 Diabetes are considered cronics if they don’t undergo bariatric surgery that ensures healing in most of the cases (as Bilio-Pancreatic Diversion) .
The actual therapy for DM2 is only synthomatic, able to get low glicemy thanks to hyperinsulinism drug-inducted contrasting insulin-resistance, in this way it is possible to compensate the less insulin production (secondary at the reduction of Pancreas Beta-cells) and the Metformina low insulin-sensibilization action.
The reduction of Beta-cells is due to two factors: low production of GLP1 Incretin and increased apoptosis (caused by hyperglycemic stimulation not incretin-mimetic and burdened from farmachologic action of Secretagogues which stimulate Beta-cells to produce more insulin whithout encouraging their throphism, unlike from enteric Incretins). Metformina and Glitazonic drugs are insulin-senshibilizants.
A similar effect is obtained by the movement which, through the consumption of glucose, makes an insulin-like effect because it is able to create a difference in glucose concentration between the blood and the muscle cells.
It is possible because glucose moves from the blood to peripheral tissues thanks to a difference of concentration that is achieved thanks to several mechanisms: first of all movement and the other two are mediated in the liver and muscle, by esokinasi and glucokinasi (fast and insulin-dependent), enzymes that trigger conversion of glucose to glucose-6-phosphate.
Back to the bilio-pancreatic diversion surgery, we can try to understand which are its physiological basis .
One of my patients with type 2 diabetes associated to essential hypertension, hyperuricemia and gout with manifestations of kidney stones, he underwent this kind of surgery for a problem of severe obesity (weight 160 kg, height 170 cm).
In a few months after surgery he lost a lot of kilograms but he was still frankly obese, with normal values of pressure and blood sugar and uric acid, with a glycated to 4 and a HOMA index to 0.5 since a blood glucose of 80 fasting insulin levels corresponded to 3 U.
All this tells us that the diabetic and insulin resistant become not only normoglycemic but also hypersensitive to insulin.
Why all this?
All this can be explained by the fact that this type of surgery connects the last part of the small intestine directly to stomach, closing the passage to the duodenum.
In this way skipping the bilio-pancreatic tract deputy to the digestion of food and also its absorption it creates a condition of malabsorption able to reduce the weight.
At the same time the direct connection between the stomach and the distal segment of the small intestine determinates the arrival of a large amount of food just a little bit digested stimulating abnormally “L” Cells (producing incretin GLP1) which are located in that area and also in the first section of the Colon.
Finally there is a substantial increase of incretin GLP1 that among the incretin hormones is the most powerful because it doesn’t stimulate only the beta cells, providing for their trophism but it also inihibits glucagon-production alpha cells which, responsible of insulin resistance for hyper-gluconeogenesis, and the excess of fatty acids both which are released from the splitting of triglycerides under the action of glucagon, both for the effect against insular effect on all the stages of the biochemical intermediate metabolism
The result is an effect insulin-sensitizing, able to delete the insulin-resistance of diabetic type2, since the hyper-glucagonemia must be regarded as the cause of insulin resistance.
In fact, glucagon, like other hormones against insular effect but not increased in type2 diabetes, acts in the opposite direction, it is due to the action of insulin
The Glucagon sends a great amount of fatty acids in the blood circulation through lipolysis.
Fatty acids competing with glucose for the formation of acetyl-coenzyme A, they allow the entrance of less glucose at muscular level and so the substrate on which it can act on esokinasi or glucokinasi both decreases.
In the liver the passage of glucose is always performed for difference of concentration, so in normal conditions of glucagon block, the transition takes place from the blood to the liver, the same is done in reverse mode when the glucagon activates glycogenolysis and hypergluconeogenesi starting from the glycerol and the amino acids coming from Gluconeogenesys.
There is a condition of fatty acids excess so there is a lower glucose consumption from all the cells (insulin indipendent), since it is to create an excess of fatty acids, whereas the block acted by the GLP-1 Incretin (thanks to Somatostatin), directs the cells to consume more glucose to get the Acetyl-coenzyme-A.
The lost of fatty acids hampers insulin action, directly proportionate to glucagon, so the only way to antagonize this effect is an increased insulin response which it isn’t incretin-mediated and then it causes beta cell apoptosis.
Ignoring these biochemical mechanisms described above about the basis of insulin resistance, in order to heal from type2 diabetes it is necessary to resort to bariatric surgery because there are no other solutions (as bariatric surgeons say).
At this point I would like to point out a way that I have already had the opportunity to experiment simulating what we just said about Bilio-Pancreatic Diversion surgery and the insulin resistance.
It is necessary introducing into the diet all foods rich in fiber (even surpassing the value of 30-40 grams indicated and this recommendation isn’t followed by diabetic patient), moreover a low calories and low sugar diet stimulates minimum “L” cells.
For this reason a diet rich in fiber like vegetables, legumes, small amounts of integral grains, it is possible to create a stimulation of the distal portion of the small intestine with a physiological increase of GLP1- incretin, which allows the reduction of the insulin-resistance and also of the weight, because it nullifies the insulin-resistance and also the leptin resistance (which goes to stimulate adiponectin by reflex).
The overstimulation is also possible via vagal when the same diet requires a greater and intense mastication. About this topic it is advisable reading what is written about the diet for diabetics and obese, of course, always on the same site
This kind of approach has enabled me to achieve in many patients getting the recovery from type 2 diabetes with normalization of blood glucose and glycated hemoglobin but also the values of insulin resistance, getting physiological hypoglycemia, that is not pharmacologically induced by oral hypoglycemic drugs.
All this is told so others could follow the same path and verify what has just been said and I have already been able to verify, In this way it is possible solving also many cases of essential hypertension secondary to hyperinsulinism due to insulin resistance in subjects not yet diabetic.
The dietary guidelines, first reported, allow a proper functioning of the glucose homeostatic system which is the premise to get the normal insulin levels.
Instead the currently recommended diet by most diabetologists is a low calorie and low sugar diet, but at the same time also poorly incretin mimetic, so there is a low “l” Cells stimulation with the result that always remains altered the ratio between beta and alpha cells and then persists hyperglucagonemy, responsible for insulin resistance and insulin production remains low, so it is necessary pharmacological stimulation with secretagogues that if on one hand it solves hyperglycemia temporarily, at the same time it doesn’t solve the insulin resistance and it also exacerbates the phenomenon of apoptosis of beta cells.
The same incretin mimetics orally can not have luck with a diet so conceived because the substrate of GLP1 is low, while it would be advisable to use them only if they are associated to a diet highly incretin mimetic that is the one recommended by me according to the explanations above.
The soluble fibers, imprisoning food and swelling, subtract a portion of food absorption, allowing for a great amount of food ingested to reach the station where “L” cells are, if they are not stimulated over time, they reduce their number and as consequence there is also the decrease of GLP-1 incretin in diabetics.
Diabetics that are GLP-1 hypo-producers, they become in a very short time hypersensitive to insulin with values around 0.5 after the Bilio-Pancreatic Diversion Surgery, as written above about my patient.
Today the diabetic patients are chronic all life long, after years of hyperinsulinism drug-induced, they need insulin therapy with all the linked problems, expecially in old people because the risk of hypoglycemia creates many problems also quite serious.
The insulin resistance forces in a hyperinsulinism that has impact on the cardio-vascular system and cancers (in this last case it is important to remember that insulin is a growthing factor, as recently published by Professor Bonanni of the IEO and Professor De Censi of Genoa, both oncologists.

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